What is Protein Expression?

Protein expression mainly refers to the way in which the proteins are synthesized, modified and regulated in the living organisms. In protein research, protein expression can now also refer to the use of laboratory techniques required for the manufacture of proteins. Furthermore, protein expression has become an essential laboratory technology when it comes to biochemistry, molecular biology and protein research as well as other scientific research fields which need the functional proteins for their research. Expressed protein products that are functional and show similar attributes to their native counterparts are very employed for further research such as the determination of the three-dimensional structure of proteins, as chemical tools or probes, or as new types of drugs, among others.

What factors influence the protein expression system's type?

The type of expression system used to generate recombinant proteins is determined by the following factors:

• the amount of time spent expressing the protein

• the expression system's ease of use

• the amount of protein needed

• the protein's mass

• number of disulfide bonds, form of post-translational modifications

• the protein's final destination

What are the various Protein Expression Systems?

Protein expression in mammals:

Because of the physiologically applicable environment, mammalian expression systems can be used to generate mammalian proteins with the most native structure and activity. As a result, there is a lot of post-translational processing going on, as well as a lot of functional action. Mammalian expression systems are the preferred method for producing antibodies, complex proteins, and proteins for use in functional cell-based assays. These advantages, however, are accompanied by more demanding cultural conditions.

Protein expression in insects:

With modifications similar to mammalian structures, insect cells may be used for high-level protein expression. There are several methods for creating recombinant baculoviral, which can then be used to express the desired protein in insect cells. These systems can easily be scaled up and adapted to high-density suspension culture for large-scale expression of protein that functions more like native mammalian protein.

Expression of bacterial proteins:

Bacterial protein expression systems are common because they are simple to culture, grow quickly, and yield large amounts of recombinant protein. Multi-domain eukaryotic proteins expressed in bacteria, on the other hand, are often non-functional because the cells lack the required post-translational modifications or molecular folding capabilities. Many proteins have become insoluble as inclusion bodies, which are difficult to recover without the use of harsh denaturants and time-consuming protein refolding procedures. In the following example, different recombinant proteins were expressed using a bacterial cell-based method.

Protein expression in the absence of cells:

The in vitro synthesis of a protein using translation-compatible extracts of whole cells is known as cell-free protein expression. Whole cell extracts, in theory, contain all of the macromolecules and components needed for transcription, translation, and post-translational modification. RNA polymerase, regulatory protein factors, transcription factors, ribosomes, and tRNA are among these components.

 Final Thoughts:

Protein expression may also provide substrates or enzymes that are required for further research. The rise in the geriatric population, age-related diseases, and the prevalence of chronic diseases such as cancer are all factors driving the growth of the protein expression market. The advancement of genetic engineering and cloning has opened up a plethora of possibilities for heterologous protein expression and isolation for research purposes. Large-scale expression and isolation of recombinant proteins is now possible thanks to significant technological advancements.

Protein Expression Market: 13.7% CAGR

Projected Revenue: 5.30 billion from 2021 to 2027

For deeper dive check the full report here:

Published Date : March-2021